|Authors||Busch RA, Heneghan AF, Pierre JF, Wang X, Kudsk KA|
|Journal||Ann. Surg. Volume: 260 Issue: 3 Pages: 432-43; discussion 443-4|
|Publish Date||2014 Sep|
Lack of enteral stimulation during parenteral nutrition (PN) impairs mucosal immunity. Bombesin (BBS), a gastrin-releasing peptide analogue, reverses PN-induced defects in acquired immunity. Paneth cells produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of innate immunity for release after cholinergic stimulation.Determine if BBS restores AMPs and bactericidal function during PN.Intravenously cannulated male ICR mice were randomized to Chow, PN, or PN+BBS (15 μg 3 times daily, n = 7 per group) for 5 days. Ileum was analyzed for AMPs (Protein: sPLA2 by fluorescence, lysozyme and RegIII-γ by western andcryptdin-4 by ELISA; mRNA: all by RT-PCR). Cholinergic stimulated (100 μM bethanechol) ileal specimens assessed Pseudomonas bactericidal activity. Ileum (Chow: n = 7; PN: n = 9; PN+BBS: n = 8) was assessed for Escherichia coli invasion in ex-vivo culture.PN significantly decreased most AMPs versus Chow while BBS maintained Chow levels (sPLA2: Chow: 107 + 14*, PN: 44.6 + 7.2, PN+BBS: 78.7 + 13.4* Fl/min/μL/total protein; Lysozyme: Chow: 63.9 + 11.9*, PN: 26.8 + 6.2; PN+BBS: 64.9 + 13.8* lysozyme/total protein; RegIII-γ: Chow: 51.5 + 10.0*, PN: 20.4 + 4.3, PN+BBS: 31.0 + 8.4 RegIII-γ/total protein; Cryptdin-4: Chow: 18.4 + 1.5*, PN: 12.7 + 1.6, PN+BBS: 26.1 + 2.4*† pg/mg [all P < 0.05 vs PN and †P < 0.05 vs Chow]). Functionally, BBS prevented PN loss of bactericidal activity after cholinergic stimulation (Chow: 25.3 + 3.6, PN: 13.0 + 3.2; PN+BBS: 27.0 + 4.7* percent bacterial killing, *P < 0.05 vs PN). BBS reduced bacterial invasion in unstimulated tissue barely missing significance (P = 0.06).The enteric nervous system (ENS) controls AMP levels in Paneth cells during PN but mucosal protection by innate immunity requires both ENS and parasympathetic stimulation.
|Full Text||Full text available on PubMed Central|