|Journal||Laryngoscope Volume: 109 Issue: 12 Pages: 1891-900|
|Publish Date||1999 Dec|
Scientific discovery, technological advances, and improved outcomes assessment have resulted in advances and refinements in phonosurgery. Three areas of substantial evolution are phonomicrosurgery, laryngeal framework surgery, and the use of implantable materials in vocal folds. Discovery of the importance of the superficial layers of the lamina propria has led to increased use of more limited medial microflap approaches and less frequent use of the classic lateral cordotomy flap approach. Alternative approaches to managing vocal fold scarring defects have addressed the separation of body and cover and provided suitable lamina propria replacement. Approaches to sulcus vocalis have been refined to address type II (linear vergeture) and type III (focal invasive pit) sulcus, where there is loss of lamina propria, while still recognizing the common nonpathological type I (physiological) sulcus. Technological advancements such as photodynamic therapy, tuned dye lasers, and laryngeal microdebridement have augmented the armamentarium for mechanical removal of laryngeal papillomata. Careful infusion-assisted microexcision and adjunctive medical management have been refined and made more effective. Laryngeal framework surgery has embraced the development of Silastic, hydroxylapatite, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, and titanium shims. Anatomical studies have helped to improve operative precision and safety, and have led to inventive variations in arytenoid repositioning that improve closure of the posterior subunit. Vocal fold augmentation by injection has been facilitated by innovative use of the rigid telescope and intraoperative videostroboscopy. Anatomical studies have focused on the infrafold region and rheological studies have attempted to match viscoelastic properties of injectable substances to those of vocal fold tissues. Alloplastic materials such as Teflon have been largely supplanted by newer bioimplantables such as fat, collagen, and fascia.