|Authors||Ingraham AM, Cohen ME, Ko CY, Hall BL|
|Journal||J. Am. Coll. Surg. Volume: 211 Issue: 2 Pages: 176-86|
|Publish Date||2010 Aug|
Cholecystectomy is among the most common surgical procedures performed in the United States. The current state of cholecystectomy outcomes, including variations in hospital performance, is unclear. The objective of this study is to compare the risk factors, indications, and 30-day outcomes, as well as variations in hospital performance associated with laparoscopic (LC) versus open cholecystectomy (OC) at 221 hospitals during a 4-year period.Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) database (2005-2008), patients were identified who underwent cholecystectomy and related procedures (cholangiogram and/or common bile duct exploration). Four outcomes were studied, ie, 30-day overall morbidity, serious morbidity, surgical site infections, and mortality. Forward stepwise logistic regressions yielded patient-level predicted probabilities, and hospital-level observed-to-expected ratios were determined.Of 65,511 patients, 58,659 (89.5%) underwent LC; 6,852 (10.5%) underwent OC. OC patients were considerably older with a higher comorbidity burden. LC patients were less likely to experience any morbidity (3.1% versus 17.8%; p < 0.0001), a serious morbidity (1.4% versus 11.1%; p < 0.0001), or a surgical site infection (1.3% versus 8.4%; p < 0.0001), and less likely to die (0.3% versus 2.8%; p < 0.0001). Observed-to-expected ratios for overall morbidity ranged from 0 to 3.55; for serious morbidity, 0 to 3.23; for surgical site infection, 0 to 7.02; for mortality, 0 to 13.05.Although overall incidence of adverse events is low after LC, substantial morbidity and mortality are associated with OC. Additionally, controlling for patient- and operation-related factors, considerable variations exist in hospital performance when evaluating 30-day outcomes after cholecystectomy.