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Authors Bracamonte-Baran W, Florentin J, Zhou Y, Jankowska-Gan E, Haynes WJ, Zhong W, Brennan TV, Dutta P, Claas FH, van Rood JJ, Burlingham WJ
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Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. Volume: 114 Issue: 5 Pages: 1099-1104
Publish Date 2017 Jan 31
PubMed ID 28096390
PMC ID 5293109
Abstract

Maternal microchimerism (MMc) has been associated with development of allospecific transplant tolerance, antitumor immunity, and cross-generational reproductive fitness, but its mode of action is unknown. We found in a murine model that MMc caused exposure to the noninherited maternal antigens in all offspring, but in some, MMc magnitude was enough to cause membrane alloantigen acquisition (mAAQ; “cross-dressing”) of host dendritic cells (DCs). Extracellular vesicle (EV)-enriched serum fractions from mAAQ(), but not from non-mAAQ, mice reproduced the DC cross-dressing phenomenon in vitro. In vivo, mAAQ was associated with increased expression of immune modulators PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1) and CD86 by myeloid DCs (mDCs) and decreased presentation of allopeptideself-MHC complexes, along with increased PD-L1, on plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). Remarkably, both serum EV-enriched fractions and membrane microdomains containing the acquired MHC alloantigens included CD86, but completely excluded PD-L1. In contrast, EV-enriched fractions and microdomains containing allopeptide+self-MHC did not exclude PD-L1. Adoptive transfer of allospecific transgenic CD4 T cells revealed a “split tolerance” status in mAAQ() mice: T cells recognizing intact acquired MHC alloantigens proliferated, whereas those responding to allopeptideself-MHC did not. Using isolated pDCs and mDCs for in vitro culture with allopeptide+self-MHC-specific CD4 T cells, we could replicate their normal activation in non-mAAQ mice, and PD-L1-dependent anergy in mAAQ(+) hosts. We propose that EVs provide a physiologic link between microchimerism and split tolerance, with implications for tumor immunity, transplantation, autoimmunity, and reproductive success.

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