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Authors Roy M, Chen H, Sippel RS
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Journal Oncologist Volume: 18 Issue: 10 Pages: 1093-100
Publish Date 2013
PubMed ID 24037980
PMC ID 3805151
Abstract

Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) typically accounts for 3%-4% of all thyroid cancers. Although the majority of MTCs are sporadic, 20% of cases are hereditary. Hereditary MTC can be found in multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A or 2B or as part of familial MTC based on a specific germline mutation in the RET proto-oncogene. This article discusses the current approaches available for the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of patients and their family members with suspected MTC. The disease is predominantly managed surgically and typically requires a total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection. A review of recent guidelines on the extent and timing of surgical excision is discussed. There are not very many effective systemic treatment options for MTC, but several emerging therapeutic targets have promise.

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