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Authors Jorgenson MR, Descourouez JL, Leverson GE, McCreary EK, Lucey MR, Smith JA, Redfield RR
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Journal Ann Pharmacother Pages: 1060028017728296
Publish Date 2017 Aug 01
PubMed ID 28844151

Following abdominal solid organ transplant (aSOT), valganciclovir (VGC) is recommended for cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis. This agent is associated with efficacy concerns, toxicity, and emergence of ganciclovir resistance.To evaluate the incidence of high-dose acyclovir (HD-A) prophylaxis failure in seropositive aSOT recipients (R+).This was a retrospective, single-center study of R+ transplanted without lymphocyte-depleting induction between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2013, discharged with 3 months of HD-A prophylaxis (800 mg 4 times daily). The primary outcome was incidence of prophylaxis failure. Secondary outcomes were incidence of biopsy-proven tissue-invasive disease and prophylaxis failure for each allograft subgroup.A total of 1525 patients met inclusion criteria: 944 renal (RTX), 108 simultaneous pancreas-kidneys (SPK), 462 liver (LTX), and 11 pancreas (PTX) transplant recipients. The composite rate of HD-A prophylaxis failure was 7%; incidence of tissue-invasive disease was 0.4%. Failure rates were 4.5%, 6.1%, 11%, and 20% in the RTX, SPK, LTX, and PTX populations, respectively; tissue-invasive disease rates were 0.2%, 0%, 0.7%, and 10%. Failure occurred more frequently in the LTX and PTX populations ( P < 0.0001, HR = 2.6; P = 0.04 HR = 4.4). Incidence of tissue-invasive disease was minimal and not different in the RTX, LTX and SPK populations ( P = 0.34). When evaluating recipients of seronegative allografts (D-), the composite failure rate was 3.4% with no significant difference between allograft subgroups ( P = 0.45).HD-A may be a reasonable prophylaxis alternative for D-/R+ recipients, in the absence of lymphocyte-depleting induction, if low incidence viremia is tolerable. Future studies are needed to determine the long-term impact of CMV viremia in the setting of this prophylaxis approach. Copyright © 2017 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System