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Authors Sandage MJ, Connor NP, Pascoe DD
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Journal J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. Volume: 57 Issue: 1 Pages: 16-25
Publish Date 2014 Feb
PubMed ID 23900031
PMC ID 3907455

Phonation threshold pressure and perceived phonatory effort were hypothesized to increase and upper airway temperature to decrease following exposure to cold and/or dry air. Greater changes were expected with mouth versus nose breathing.In a within-participant repeated measures design, 15 consented participants (7 men, 8 women) completed 20-min duration trials to allow for adequate thermal equilibration for both nose and mouth breathing in 5 different environments: 3 temperatures (°C) matched for relative humidity (% RH), cold (15 °C, 40% RH), thermally neutral (25 °C, 40% RH), and hot (35 °C, 40% RH); and 2 temperatures with variable relative humidity to match vapor pressure for the neutral environment (25 °C, 40% RH), cold (15 °C, 74% RH) and hot (35 °C, 23% RH). Following each equilibration trial, measures were taken in this order: upper airway temperature (transnasal thermistor probe), phonation threshold pressure, and perceived phonatory effort.Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance, and no significant differences were established.The study hypotheses were not supported. Findings suggest that the upper airway is tightly regulated for temperature when challenged by a realistic range of temperature and relative humidity environments. This is the first study of its kind to include measurement of upper airway temperature in conjunction with measures of vocal function.

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