|Authors||Kohler JE, Zaborina O, Wu L, Wang Y, Bethel C, Chen Y, Shapiro J, Turner JR, Alverdy JC|
|Journal||Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. Volume: 288 Issue: 5 Pages: G1048-54|
|Publish Date||2005 May|
We have previously shown that a lethal virulence trait in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the PA-I lectin, is expressed by bacteria within the intestinal lumen of surgically stressed mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether intestinal epithelial hypoxia, a common response to surgical stress, could activate PA-I expression. A fusion construct was generated to express green fluorescent protein downstream of the PA-I gene, serving as a stable reporter strain for PA-I expression in P. aeruginosa. Polarized Caco-2 monolayers were exposed to ambient hypoxia (0.1-0.3% O2) for 1 h, with or without a recovery period of normoxia (21% O2) for 2 h, and then inoculated with P. aeruginosa containing the PA-I reporter construct. Hypoxic Caco-2 monolayers caused a significant increase in PA-I promoter activity relative to normoxic monolayers (165% at 1 h; P < 0.001). Similar activation of PA-I was also induced by cell-free apical, but not basal, media from hypoxic Caco-2 monolayers. PA-I promoter activation was preferentially enhanced in bacterial cells that physically interacted with hypoxic epithelia. We conclude that the virulence circuitry of P. aeruginosa is activated by both soluble and contact-mediated elements of the intestinal epithelium during hypoxia and normoxic recovery.