|Authors||Theccanat T, Philip JL, Razzaque AM, Ludmer N, Li J, Xu X, Akhter SA|
|Journal||Cell. Signal. Volume: 28 Issue: 3 Pages: 190-203|
|Publish Date||2016 Mar|
Cardiac myocyte oxidative stress and apoptosis are considered important mechanisms for the development of heart failure (HF). Chronic HF is characterized by increased circulating catecholamines to augment cardiac output. Long-term stimulation of myocardial β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) is deleterious in cardiac myocytes, however, the potential mechanisms underlying increased cell death are unclear. We hypothesize that GRK2, a critical regulator of myocardial β-AR signaling, plays an important role in mediating cellular oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in response to β-agonist stimulation. Stimulation of H9c2 cells with a non-selective β-agonist, isoproterenol (Iso) caused increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. There was also increased Nox4 expression, but no change in Nox2, the primary NADPH isoforms and major sources of ROS generation in cardiac myocytes. Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of GRK2 led to similar increases in ROS production and apoptosis as seen with Iso stimulation. These increases in oxidative stress were abolished by pre-treatment with the non-specific Nox inhibitor, apocynin, or siRNA knockdown of Nox4. Adenoviral-mediated expression of a GRK2 inhibitor prevented ROS production and apoptosis in response to Iso stimulation. β-Arrestins are signaling proteins that function downstream of GRK2 in β-AR uncoupling. Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of β-arrestins increased ROS production and Nox4 expression. Chronic β-agonist stimulation in mice increased Nox4 expression and apoptosis compared to PBS or AngII treatment. These data demonstrate that GRK2 may play an important role in regulating oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiac myocytes and provides an additional novel mechanism for the beneficial effects of cardiac-targeted GRK2 inhibition to prevent the development of HF.
|Full Text||Full text available on PubMed Central|