|Authors||Kamiya K, Sakakibara K, Ryer EJ, Hom RP, Leof EB, Kent KC, Liu B|
|Journal||Mol. Cell. Biol. Volume: 27 Issue: 9 Pages: 3489-98|
|Publish Date||2007 May|
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta), a multifunctional cytokine associated with vascular injury, is a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation. The current results demonstrate that the TGFbeta-induced growth arrest of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is associated with cyclin A downregulation. TGFbeta represses the cyclin A gene through a cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element, which complexes with the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). The CREB-cyclin A promoter interaction is hindered by TGFbeta, preceded by a TGFbeta receptor-dependent CREB phosphorylation. Induction of CREB phosphorylation with forskolin or 6bnz-cAMP mimics TGFbeta’s inhibitory effect on cyclin A expression. Conversely, inhibition of CREB phosphorylation with a CREB mutant in which the phosphorylation site at serine 133 was changed to alanine (CREB-S133A) upregulated cyclin A gene expression. Furthermore, the CREB-S133A mutant abolished TGFbeta-induced CREB phosphorylation, cyclin A downregulation, and growth inhibition. Since we have previously shown that the novel PKC isoform protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta) is activated by TGFbeta in VSMCs, we tested the role of this kinase in CREB phosphorylation and cyclin A downregulation. Inhibition of PKCdelta by a dominant-negative mutant or by targeted gene deletion blocked TGFbeta-induced CREB phosphorylation and cyclin A downregulation. Taken together, our data indicate that phosphorylation of CREB stimulated by TGFbeta is a critical step leading to the inhibition of cyclin A expression and, thus, VSMC proliferation.
|Full Text||Full text available on PubMed Central|