|Authors||Lim X, Bless DM, Muñoz-Del-Río A, Welham NV|
|Journal||Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. Volume: 117 Issue: 3 Pages: 227-38|
|Publish Date||2008 Mar|
Modulating cytokine signaling in vocal fold fibroblasts after injury may influence extracellular matrix (ECM) production and eventual fibrotic outcome. To evaluate previously established in vivo cytokine and ECM gene expression hypotheses, we examined in vitro vocal fold fibroblast responses to exogenous inflammatory factor stimulation.Rat vocal fold fibroblast lines derived from explants were separately treated with interleukin-13 (IL-13), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor beta subtype 1 (TGF-beta1), or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We examined the in vitro messenger RNA expression profiles of IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), as well as those of hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS) 1, HAS-2, procollagen subtype 1, and procollagen subtype 3, at 1,4, 8, 16, 24, and 72 hours after treatment, and compared them to those of untreated fibroblasts and in vivo data, using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.IL-1beta and TNF-alpha induced each other and synergistically increased HAS-1 and HAS-2 expression. PGE2 also up-regulated HAS-1 and HAS-2 expression. IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta1 up-regulated HAS expression alongside either transient up-regulation of, or no change in, procollagen 1 and 3 expression. Most treatments appeared to suppress procollagen expression, possibly through HAS up-regulation. All inflammatory factors attenuated TGF-beta1 expression.These results confirm several in vivo trends, identify potential cytokine pathways and therapeutic candidates, and suggest the utility of this in vitro setup for future studies.