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Authors Squires MH, Lad NL, Fisher SB, Kooby DA, Weber SM, Brinkman A, Sarmiento JM, Scoggins CR, Egger ME, Cardona K, Cho CS, Martin RC, Russell MC, Winslow E, Staley CA, Maithel SK
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Journal J. Am. Coll. Surg. Volume: 220 Issue: 4 Pages: 396-402
Publish Date 2015 Apr
PubMed ID 25724607

The value of routine primary (intraoperative) drain placement after major hepatectomy remains unclear. We sought to determine if primary drainage led to decreased rates of complications, specifically, intra-abdominal biloma or infection requiring a secondary (postoperative) drainage procedure.All patients who underwent major hepatectomy (≥3 hepatic segments) at 3 institutions, from 2000 to 2012, were identified. Patients with biliary anastomoses were excluded. Primary outcomes were any complication, rate of secondary drainage procedures, bile leak, and 30-day readmission.There were 1,041 patients who underwent major hepatectomy without biliary anastomosis; 564 (54%) had primary drains placed at the surgeon’s discretion. Primary drain placement was associated with increased complications (56% vs 44%; p < 0.001), bile leaks (7.3% vs 4.2%; p = 0.048), and 30-day readmissions (16.4% vs 8.0%; p < 0.001), but was not associated with a decrease in secondary drainage procedures (8.0% vs 5.9%; p = 0.23). Patients with primary drains demonstrated higher American Society of Anesthesioloigsts (ASA) class, greater blood loss, more transfusions, and larger resections. After accounting for these significant clinicopathologic variables on multivariate analysis, primary drain placement was not associated with increased risk of any complications. Primary drainage was, however, independently associated with increased risk of bile leak (hazard ratio [HR] 2.04; 95% CI1.02 to 4.09; p = 0.044) and 30-day readmission (HR 1.79; 95% CI1.14 to 2.80; p = 0.011). There still was no reduction in the need for secondary drainage procedures (HR 0.98; p = 0.96).Primary intraoperative drain placement after major hepatectomy does not decrease the need for secondary drainage procedures and may be associated with increased bile leaks and 30-day readmissions. Routine drain placement is not warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System