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Authors Adler JT, Hottinger DG, Kunnimalaiyaan M, Chen H
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Journal World J Surg Volume: 33 Issue: 11 Pages: 2452-7
Publish Date 2009 Nov
PubMed ID 19669229
PMC ID 3088764
Abstract

Operative resection is the only curative treatment for pheochromocytomas. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway has been shown to be an effective treatment of neuroendocrine (NE) tumors in vitro. We hypothesized that inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway would be a viable strategy to inhibit growth and hormonal secretion in pheochromocytoma cells.Sixteen pheochromocytomas were analyzed for expression of phosphorylated Akt and the NE marker achaete scute complex-like 1 (ASCL1). Pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells were treated with up to 100 microM of the PI3K-specific inhibitor LY294002 for 48 h. Western blot analysis was used to measure phosphorylated Akt, total Akt, ASCL1, chromogranin A (CgA), and markers of apoptosis. Growth was assessed by a methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT) bromide cellular proliferation assay for six days.Human pheochromocytomas expressed significant amounts of phosphorylated Akt, and there was a significant correlation between malignant pheochromocytomas and the amount of expressed ASCL1. LY294002 significantly inhibited the PI3K-Akt pathway. Treatment led to a dose-dependent decrease in both ASCL1 and CgA, indicating an alteration in the NE phenotype and hormonal suppression. Treatment decreased cellular proliferation, and cleavage of the apoptotic markers caspase-3 and PARP was observed.Human pheochromocytoma tumor samples express high levels of phosphorylated Akt. LY294002 effectively inhibits the PI3K-Akt pathway, suppresses NE tumor markers, and decreases cellular proliferation via apoptosis in vitro. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway may represent a new strategy in the treatment of pheochromocytomas.

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