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Authors Cho CS
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Journal Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am. Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 41-56
Publish Date 2015 Jan
PubMed ID 25444468

Staging systems are an attempt to incorporate the biology and therapy for cancer in a way that enables categorization and prediction of oncologic outcomes. Because of unusual disease biology and complexities related to treatment intervention, efforts to develop reliable staging systems for hepatic malignancies have been challenging. This article discusses the ways in which improved understanding of these diseases has informed the evolution of prognostication systems as applied to hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic colorectal adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2017 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System